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Rewiring the Transformer with Depth-Wise LSTMs.

Hongfei Xu; Yang Song; Qiuhui Liu; Josef van Genabith; Deyi Xiong
In: Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference. International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2024), May 20-25, Turin, Italy, ELRA, 2024.


Stacking non-linear layers allows deep neural networks to model complicated functions, and including residual connections in Transformer layers is beneficial for convergence and performance. However, residual connections may make the model "forget" distant layers and fail to fuse information from previous layers effectively. Selectively managing the representation aggregation of Transformer layers may lead to better performance. In this paper, we present a Transformer with depth-wise LSTMs connecting cascading Transformer layers and sub-layers. We show that layer normalization and feed-forward computation within a Transformer layer can be absorbed into depth-wise LSTMs connecting pure Transformer attention layers. Our experiments with the 6-layer Transformer show significant BLEU improvements in both WMT 14 English-German / French tasks and the OPUS-100 many-to-many multilingual NMT task, and our deep Transformer experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of depth-wise LSTM on the convergence and performance of deep Transformers.