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Cooperating to Be Noncooperative: The Dialog System PRACMA

By Anthony Jameson, Bernhard Kipper, Alassane Ndiaye, Ralph Schäfer, Joep Simons, Thomas Weis, and Detlev Zimmermann (1994)

In B. Nebel & L. Dreschler-Fischer (Eds.), KI-94: Advances in artificial intelligence (pp. 106–117). Berlin: Springer.


The modeling of noncooperative dialogs, as opposed to dialogs in which the goals of the participants coincide, presents novel challenges to a pragmatically oriented dialog system. PRACMA models noncooperative sales dialogs. In the role of the potential buyer of a used car, the system tries to arrive at a realistic evaluation of the unknown car in spite of biased information presentation on the part of the seller. In the role of the seller, PRACMA tries to form a usable model of the buyer even while using this model to manipulate the buyer’s impressions. To realize this behavior, heterogeneous modules and representation formalisms cooperate within a multi-agent architecture.



Paper:  [PDF File]

BibTeX entry

  year = {1994},
  author = {{Jameson}, Anthony and
            {Kipper}, Bernhard and
            {Ndiaye}, Alassane and
            {Sch\”{a}fer}, Ralph and
            {Simons}, Joep and
            {Weis}, Thomas and
            {Zimmermann}, Detlev},
  editor = {{Nebel}, Bernhard and
            {Dreschler-Fischer}, Leonie},
  title = {Cooperating to Be Noncooperative: The Dialog System {PRACMA}},
  booktitle = {{KI}-94: Advances in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Berlin},
  publisher = {Springer},
  pages = {106--117}}